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Posted Jul 1, The purpose of this program is to improve the quality and professionalism of the SC workforce SCWF in order to ensure it has the capacity, in both personnel and skills, needed to properly perform its mission, provide appropriate support to the assessment, planning and monitoring, execution, evaluation, and administration of security cooperation programs and activities.
It will also ensure that personnel assignments match the appropriate level of expertise and experience required security cooperation programs and activities of the DoD and the execution of security assistance programs and activities. The SCW certification program contains three major components: SC competencies based training, SC experience requirements and continuous learning requirements.
DSCA is finalizing the program requirements and will publish guidance in due course. While the details of this program are being finalized, the training courses to support that certification program are currently under Alpha testing. All new courses will have equivalency legacy courses identified for certification purposes when applicable courses previously existed , providing workforce members the ability to use most courses previously completed at DISCS to meet the new certification requirements. All DISCS courses completed during the transition phase can be used to fulfill these new certification requirements.
Details on each course will be added to the DISCS online catalog as they are completed and prior to implementation of the certification program. Please see our online catalog for further details on each course. We will continue to add course information as the courses are developed. GOV Use of this DoD computer system, authorized or unauthorized, constitutes consent to monitoring of this system. Sincerely, Dr. For this type of shelter, the recommended amount of floor area per person is about 10 square feet. Necessities, such as water and toilet facilities, should be provided.
If you plan to build a shelter with any wall longer than eight feet, consult a licensed professional engineer or architect. Foundation Types: Houses on a basement, slab-ongrade or crawlspace are suitable for the installation of a shelter. Typical reinforcement techniques used in residential basement walls will not provide sufficient protection from missiles. Reinforcing the basement walls of an existing house is not practical. The likelihood of missiles entering the basement is lower than for above ground areas; however, there is a significant chance that missiles or falling debris will enter the basement through an opening left when a window, door or the first floor has been torn off by extreme wind.
The concrete may be reinforced with steel that helps prevent cracking and bending. The thickened slab will act as a footing beneath the walls of the shelter to provide structural support. It will also anchor the shelter so that it stays in place during an extreme wind event, even if the rest of the house is destroyed.
This type of shelter must have not only proper footings but also a watertight roof. Because a shelter built as an outside addition will be more susceptible to the impact of missiles, it should not be built of wood framing. Instead, it should be built of concrete or concrete masonry. Access to this type of shelter can be provided through an existing door or window in an exterior wall of the house.
If you build a shelter with concrete or concrete masonry walls, a section of your existing slab floor will have to be removed and replaced with a thicker slab. Again, this is usually not practical in an existing house. Crawlspace A house built on a crawlspace usually has a floor constructed of wood framing. Along its perimeter, the floor is supported by the exterior foundation walls. The interior part of the floor is supported by beams that rest on a foundation wall or individual piers. Crawlspace foundation walls may be concrete, but are usually constructed of concrete masonry.
Crawlspace foundation walls are often unreinforced and therefore provide little resistance to the stresses caused by extreme winds. The entire shelter, including its floor, must be separate from the framing of the house. The shelter must have a separate concrete slab floor installed on top of earth fill and must be supported by concrete or concrete masonry foundation walls. An economical alternative: build an exterior shelter on a slab-on-grade adjacent to an outside wall of the house and provide access through a door installed in that wall.
Maintaining ventilation in the area below the floor of the house is key. The wood-framed floor of a house on a crawlspace foundation is typically 18 to 30 inches above the ground by the foundation walls. The space below the floor is designed to allow air to flow through so that the floor framing will not become too damp. Installation of the shelter cannot block this air flow.
The shelter must have a separate foundation. Building the foundation inside the house would require cutting out a section of the existing floor and installing new foundation members, fill dirt and a new slab…a complicated and expensive operation. An economical alternative to building a shelter in a house with a crawlspace foundation: Build an exterior shelter, made of concrete or concrete masonry, on a slab-on-grade foundation adjacent to an outside wall of the house. A biological attack is caused by an organism like a virus e. Generally, chemical attacks have the potential to make many people sick quickly; but the chemical dies out— often just as quickly.
The incubation periods for many biological germs are days to weeks—not minutes to hours. Ricin, for example, is a potent toxin that has potential to be used as an agent of biological warfare and as a weapon of mass destruction WMD. It can be disseminated as an aerosol, by injection or as a food and water contaminant. Both of these tasks are difficult. Picture the looks of the supermarket shelves prior to the arrival of a hurricane or blizzard; everyone rushes out for supplies at the last minute.
Second, avoiding panic and anxiety during a disaster—when people around you are freaking out—is an added challenge. It is public information. This chapter gave you the tools for the first task— preparing for disaster. We continue our discussion on disasters by taking a closer look in the next two chapters at specific disasters and how to survive them.
But losses of human life resulting from an earthquake are less frequent in the U. Most losses of life in an earthquake occur when structures collapse. Because construction standards of developed countries are superior to those of the third world, buildings in the developed world are more likely to remain intact. For example: In , an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.
On the other hand, a earthquake of the same magnitude in Japan a more densely populated country killed only They can also cause huge ocean waves, called tsunamis, which travel long distances over water until they crash into coastal areas. In the U. They can also buy insurance designed especially for that purpose. Standard property insurance does not cover losses caused by an earthquake—but earthquake coverage for the residence, other structures and personal property may be attached by endorsement.
Several earthquake-prone states—most notably California—require any insurance company that writes homeowners coverage to write earthquake coverage. Most stay quiet about it. But they have to give you information, if you ask. Separate earthquake coverage can be expensive— sometimes as much as the underlying basic homeowners coverage. The type of construction of the structure is a significant factor in earthquake rates. Different rates apply to frame buildings wood or stucco-covered wood structures and to those classified as masonry brick, stone, adobe or concrete block.
For ordinary property coverages, the reverse is true—masonry rates are lower than frame rates. This situation exists because of the nature of the exposure: wooden buildings are more vulnerable to fire than stone or brick buildings are; but stone or brick buildings are more vulnerable to earthquakes than wooden buildings are.
Earthquakes are ongoing disasters. They require some even-tempered management. If you have substantial damage to your home, including exposure to outdoor weather, your insurance company will expect you to seal it off—so rain will not cause more damage. The best strategy for buying earthquake insurance is to take the coverage with a deductible equal to 20 to 50 percent of the cost of rebuilding.
That will keep the premiums low—and, if things get shaken up, you can usually get a FEMA loan for the deductible. This is the opposite of the best plan for flood insurance—which is, simply, buy as much of the subsidized FEMA coverage as the Feds will sell you. This can be an issue on which you have to press hard for your rights. Once an area has been officially designated a federal disaster area in the wake of an earthquake, FEMA and other agencies make various forms of low-interest and no-interest loans available for rebuilding.
Many people simply count on these subsidized loans as their earthquake insurance. Fasten shelves to walls. Brace high and top-heavy objects. Flexible fittings are more resistant to breakage. Check with your local utilities for instructions. Reinforce this information by physically placing yourself and your family in these locations. This is when following your disaster plan comes into play. You must be ready to live on your own for at least three days. Some damage may be covered even without specific earthquake insurance.
Protect important home and business papers. Most injuries during earthquakes occur when people are hit by falling objects when entering or exiting buildings. Minimize your movements during an earthquake to a few steps to a nearby safe place. Stay indoors until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe.
If you are in bed, stay there, hold on and protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that could fall. Doorways should only be used for shelter if they are in close proximity to you and if you know that it is a strongly supported load-bearing doorway a main entryway or front door. Move away from buildings, streetlights and utility wires. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, overpasses or utility wires.
Then, proceed cautiously, watching for road and bridge damage. If you are indoors, stay indoors until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of death or further injury. If you must move an unconscious person, first stabilize the neck and back, then call for help. Do not use candles, matches or open flames indoors after the earthquake because of possible gas leaks. If you have any doubts about safety, have your home inspected by a professional before entering.
Evacuate the building if gasoline fumes are detected and the building is not well ventilated.
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Shut off the main gas valve, if you know where it is. Report the leak to the gas company from the nearest working phone or cell phone available. Stay out of the building. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves. If you must go out, watch for fallen objects, downed electrical wires, weakened walls, bridges, roads and sidewalks. When local authorities issue a tsunami warning, assume that a series of dangerous waves is on the way. Stay away from the beach. They can move at slow or very high speeds and be activated by storms, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, fires and by human modification of the land.
Debris and mud flows are rivers of rock, earth and other debris saturated with water. They can also travel several miles from their source, growing in size as they pick up trees, cars and other objects. Land mismanagement can also cause these disasters. Even in ritzy areas like the Malibu area in Southern California experiences problems when the rains come.
Land-use zoning, professional inspections and proper design can minimize the threat. Watch for any sign of land movement—such as small slides, flows or progressively leaning trees—on the hillsides near your home. After the disaster, check for damage and report any downed power lines or utilities. A professional will be able to advise you of the best ways to prevent or reduce landslide risk, without creating further hazard. If you live near a flood zone, your home has a 1 percent chance each year of being flooded. Only 20 percent of Americans who live in flood zones have flood insurance, and the percentage of people living elsewhere is substantially lower.
One third of all flood claims come from outside high-risk areas. So, how do you get flood coverage? The NFIP requires you to apply for flood coverage at least 30 days in advance. You cannot watch the weather report and then expect to have a policy effective at midnight. You are probably more at risk for flooding than you think. If your community does not participate in the NFIP, ask an insurance company or agent what you can do to get coverage. Take photographs or videotapes of your belongings. Store these documents in a safe place.
Do not wait for instructions to move. Flash floods can occur in these areas with or without such typical warning signs as rain clouds or heavy rain. If you have time, tie down or bring outdoor equipment and lawn furniture inside. Move essential items to the upper floors. Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not touch electrical equipment if you are wet or standing in water. Before filling the tub, sterilize it with a diluted bleach solution.
If you are evacuating, do not drive into flooded areas. Six inches of water will reach the bottom of most passenger cars causing loss of control and possible stalling.
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A foot of water will float many vehicles. Two feet of water will wash away almost all vehicles. If floodwaters rise around your car, abandon the car and move to higher ground, if you can do so safely. The water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline or raw sewage.
The water may also be charged from underground or downed power lines. If you must walk in a flooded area, walk where the water is not moving. Roads may have weakened and could collapse under a car. Stay out of buildings if surrounded by floodwaters. Use caution entering buildings. There may be hidden damage, particularly in foundations. Remember, flood waters are dirty. Many people get sick after floods because of hygiene problems. Damaged sewage systems are serious health hazards. The American Red Cross can help you with this process. Generally, hurricanes occur during a season that starts in the later Summer and goes through the Fall.
In the hurricane season, the southeastern U. Tropical cyclones are classified as: tropical depressions an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of 38 m. All Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas are subject to hurricanes or tropical storms. Although rarely struck by hurricanes, parts of the Southwest United States and the Pacific Coast experience heavy rains and floods each year from hurricanes spawned off Mexico. The Atlantic hurricane season lasts from June to November with the peak season from midAugust to late October.
Hurricanes are classified according to the SaffirSimpson intensity scale, which makes distinctions based on peak wind velocity. Minimal damage. Moderate damage. Extensive damage. Extreme damage. Catastrophic damage. They were wrong. Weather reports can now track and predict the strength of hurricanes five days in advance, whereas 15 years ago an accurate warning came within three days.
You have more time to prepare these days than you did before. Hurricanes do damage in two ways. They kick up vicious winds that can toss around cars, trees and anything else that is above ground. Most people can protect their houses or apartments from the wind by covering windows with plywood or masking tape. And by moving anything under pounds indoors. The water damage is harder to prevent. You can move valuables up—to high shelves or second floors. But rain can seep into a house from all points. They can also spawn tornadoes and microbursts, create surge along the coast and cause extensive damage due to inland flooding from trapped water.
A storm surge is a huge dome of water pushed onshore by hurricane and tropical storm winds. Storm surges can reach 25 feet high and be 50 to miles wide. Storm tide is a combination of the storm surge and the normal tide a foot storm surge plus a 2foot normal high tide creates a foot storm tide. These phenomena cause severe erosion and extensive damage to coastal areas. Despite improved warnings and a decrease in the loss of life, property damage continues to rise because an increasing number of people are living or vacationing near coastlines.
Close storm shutters.
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Secure outdoor objects or bring them indoors. Moor your boat. Remember that alcoholic beverages and weapons are prohibited within shelters. Also, pets are not allowed in a public shelter due to health reasons. Fuel your car—gas stations may be closed after the storm. If you do not have a car, make arrangements for transportation with a friend or relative. Review evacuation routes. If instructed, turn off utilities at the main valves. Secure and brace external doors. Local authorities need first priority on telephone lines. If you are not required or are unable to evacuate, stay indoors during the hurricane and away from windows and glass doors.
Keep curtains and blinds closed. Do not be fooled if there is a lull, it could be the eye the dead center of the storm—winds will pick up again. After a hurricane, stay where you are if you are in a safe location until local authorities say it is safe to leave. If you evacuated the community, do not return to the area until authorities say it is safe to return. Keep tuned to local radio or television stations for information about caring for your household, where to find medical help, how to apply for financial assistance, etc.
Do not drive on flooded or barricaded roads or bridges. Closed roads are for your protection. Remember: As little as six inches of water may cause you to lose control of your vehicle—two feet of water will carry most cars away. Thunderstorm produce lightning and there are many associated dangers to thunderstorms: tornadoes, strong winds, hail and flash floods.
Flash flooding is responsible for more fatalities— more than annually—than any other thunderstorm-associated hazard. The Western United States experience dry thunderstorms sometimes. Because the air beneath the clouds is so dry, the falling rain evaporates quickly. Dry thunderstorms are a common cause of wildfires. Thunderstorms can occur singly, in clusters or in lines.
Some of the most severe weather occurs when a single thunderstorm affects one location for an extended time. They can produce heavy rain for a brief period, anywhere from 30 minutes to an hour. Of the estimated , thunderstorms each year in the United States, about 10 percent are classified as severe. A severe thunderstorm produces hail at least three-quarters of an inch in diameter, has winds of 58 miles per hour or higher, or produces a tornado. Shutter windows, if possible, and secure outside doors. If shutters are not available, close window blinds, shades, or curtains. Although most lightning victims survive, people struck by lightning often report a variety of longterm, debilitating symptoms, including memory loss, attention deficits, sleep disorders, numbness, dizziness, stiffness in joints, muscle spasms and depression.
When thunderstorms threaten your area, get inside a home, building or hard top automobile not a convertible and stay away from metallic objects and fixtures. Plumbing and bathroom fixtures can conduct electricity. Cordless and cellular telephones are safe to use. Power surges from lightning can cause serious damage. Be alert for flash floods. If you are boating or swimming, get to land and find shelter immediately. Place your hands over your ears and your head between your knees. Make yourself the smallest target possible and minimize your contact with the ground. Do not lie flat on the ground.
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, your chances of being struck by lightning in your lifetime are estimated to be 1 in , Stay indoors for 30 minutes after hearing the last clap of thunder. However, the steel frame of a hard-topped vehicle provides increased protection if you are not touching metal.
Although you may be injured if lightning strikes your car, you are much safer inside a vehicle than outside. Spawned from powerful thunderstorms, tornadoes can uproot trees, destroy buildings and turn harmless objects into deadly missiles. They can devastate a neighborhood in seconds. And they can kill without warning. A tornado appears as a rotating, funnel-shaped cloud that extends to the ground with whirling winds that can reach miles per hour.
Damage paths can be in excess of one mile wide and 50 miles long. The average tornado moves SW to NE but tornadoes have been known to move in any direction. If an underground shelter is not available, identify an interior room or hallway on the lowest floor. Occasionally, tornadoes develop so rapidly that little, if any, advance warning is possible.
Before a tornado hits, the wind may die down and the air may become very still. It is not uncommon to see clear, sunlit skies behind a tornado. Avoid places with widespan roofs such as auditoriums, cafeterias, large hallways, supermarkets or shopping malls. Gather household members and pets. Assemble supplies to take to the shelter such as flashlight, battery-powered radio, water, and first-aid kit. Put as many walls as possible between you and the outside.
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Get under a sturdy table and use your arms to protect your head and neck. Stay there until the danger has passed. Stay away from windows, doors and outside walls. Go to the center of the room. Stay away from corners because they attract debris. Interior hallways on the lowest floor are usually safest. Stay away from windows and open spaces. Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from tornadoes.
Be aware of potential for flooding. You are safer in a low, flat location. Tornadoes are erratic and move swiftly. Flying debris from tornadoes causes most fatalities and injuries. Be sure that walls, ceilings and roofs are in place and that the structure rests firmly on the foundation. Wear work boots and gloves. FIRE Fire is the most common disaster—and it can happen anywhere. Each year more than 4, Americans die and more than 25, are injured in fires, many of which could be prevented.
Heat and smoke from fire can be more dangerous than the flames. Inhaling the super-hot air can sear your lungs. Instead of being awakened by a fire, you may fall into a deeper sleep. Fire insurance is one of the oldest coverages offered by insurers. It is readily available and usually at reasonable cost or as part of a standard homeowners policy.
Although homeowners insurance does not cover earthquake and flood losses, fire losses caused by earthquakes or floods such as an explosion and fire from a ruptured gas line or shorted electrical appliance are covered. Test them regularly. Never use water on an electrical fire; use only a fire extinguisher approved for electrical fires.
Smother oil and grease fires in the kitchen with baking soda or salt, or put a lid over the flame if it is burning in a pan. Do not attempt to take the pan outside. Crawl if the room on the other side is smoke-filled. The air is clearer and cooler near the floor. You will need receipts for insurance and income tax claims.
If anything thawed in the freezer, be sure to discard that, too. Fire-safe boxes can hold intense heat for hours; if you open it before it has cooled, the contents can burst into flames. Most were not prepared to flee their homes and gather their most prized possessions in minutes. This means knowing what you have to take…and what to leave behind. Paperwork—insurance policies, birth certificates, titles, deeds, Social Security cards and other documents—may be more vital to your life than things like appliances or clothing.
Stack firewood at least 30 feet away from your home. Beyond 30 feet, remove dead wood, debris and low tree branches. Succulents—cactus, yucca, ice plant and related plants—are fire resistant. Hardwood trees resist fire more than pine, evergreen, eucalyptus and fir trees. Materials like stone, brick and metal resist fire better than wood.
Despite the predictable pattern of wildfire, homeowners continue to build in areas exposed to uncontrollable fire hazards. Unlike other catastrophic risks, the risk of fire is covered under a standard homeowners contract. Having this mentality will cost lives and millions of dollars. This chapter discussed some of the natural disasters you might face. But, keep in mind, that man-made disasters are probably a larger threat to people living in cities and high-density areas. Your travel habits affect your exposure to higher risks; those habits include how you travel method of transportation , where you travel, what you do when you get there, how you behave, what you bring with you or take away and how you react to certain situations you might encounter.
But these strategies and tips can work just about anywhere. Although the U. Limit that knowledge to those who need to know. Leave a complete itinerary including contact numbers, if known with your office and with family or a friend. Make three copies of the page containing your photograph. Keep one in your carry-on luggage; one in your main luggage; and one with a family member. These items should be stored in separate locations to avoid losing everything at once.
Carry an international shot record that certifies appropriate inoculations. List your blood type, allergies, medical conditions and special requirements. Medical alert bracelets are a good idea if you suffer from certain ailments like diabetes, severe allergies, etc. Consult your doctor for more about these. Have an up-to-date will and insurance policy. Leave a power of attorney with a family member or friend should anything happen to you.
Sleep as much as you can during the flight. Give yourself a chance to adjust to your surroundings. State Department, Bureau of Consular Affairs for traveling conditions and warnings. You can go to their Web site at www. Or call Travel advice, including warnings about certain countries and regions, is issued regularly by the State Department and is frequently updated. Read it before you depart. Read it before you book flights. In addition to the governmental information sources, you can further your research by accessing travel and educational Web sites like Lonely Planet and Infoplease, and other general media outlets.
The embassy of the country you plan to visit can provide a list of Customs restrictions or banned materials. Minimize the possibility of an encounter with the local authorities. These wallets are designed to hang around your neck or strap around your waist for safekeeping. Use your work address and telephone number. Any gifts received from a foreign business contact should be thoroughly inspected before being placed in your luggage. Criminals abroad often target foreigners purchasing local currency at airport banks and currency exchange windows. If trouble comes, you need to know how to avoid it and get out of the area.
Be aware of which are examining travelers. Stay away from people who look like they might cause problems—or delays—with security personnel. Rushing creates confusion. Know what items you are carrying and be able to describe all electrical items. Wear shoes that come off easily for security checks. Foreign visitors arriving in the U. Use hotels recommended by friends, business associates i. Again, the less known about your travel itinerary, and who you represent, the better.
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Always audit monthly credit card statements to ensure that unauthorized use has not been made. The most vulnerable part of your journey is traveling between the point of debarkation getting off a plane or ship or embarkation getting on a plane or ship and the hotel. Before exiting the vehicle, ensure there are no suspicious persons or activities. Luggage in their care makes them liable for your property. Keep claim checks. In some countries, your passport may be held by the hotel for review by the police or other authorities.
If so, retrieve it at the earliest possible time. Most fire departments do not have the capability to rescue people above the seventh floor level with external rescue equipment i. Look for fire escapes. Request rooms that are away from the elevator landing and stairwells. Verify hotel employees with the front desk before permitting entry to your room. While in the room, keep the door closed and engage the dead bolt and privacy latch or chain. A limited number of hotel keys can override the dead bolt locks.
Guest room safes are not secure. But, the more you keep your business private, the better. Remember: avoid room safes and check all valuable items at the front desk. Note significant points on the map such as your hotel, embassies and police stations. Make a mental note of alternative routes to your hotel or local office. Look up and down the street before exiting a building. Make sure you always have coins or a prepaid card for telephone use. Areas around phones are often used by criminals to stage pickpocket activity or theft. Criminals listen for callers to announce credit card numbers on public phones and then sell those numbers.