IHL also recognizes that the "reverberating effects" of long armed conflicts create systemic degradation over time which increase people's vulnerability. Attention must be paid to the risk of an ever worsening environment and deeper steps must be taken to mitigate its effects. When dealing with this cumulative impact of protracted conflict, IHL might expect humanitarian action to become more deeply engaged in war-torn societies, in a way that some may stereotype as "developmental" but which is humanitarian in such a context in support of basic needs.
This is especially true if there is an absence of development actors. Although immune from today's jargon, IHL is concerned with nexus thinking and nexus obligations as they concern the protection of the environment, development infrastructure, and the responsibility of social norms and governance systems to ensure dignified protection and survival.
IHL guides the ICRC's humanitarian operations, and we have long recognized the need to work with short and long-term goals in armed conflicts — especially when conflicts are protracted and last for many years. We call this short-long method a "combined approach" in which we work with two distinct intentions: an immediate intention to ensure people's urgent protection and survival, and a longer and deeper intention to create a "conducive environment" in which the respect for international humanitarian law IHL and the sustainable functioning of vital infrastructure systems and basic services continues throughout armed conflict.
Let me illustrate this combined approach and conducive environment from our food and water strategies. A short-long food programme in South Sudan means we make assessments in hard to reach areas and drop food where it is needed — often in close liaison with WFP. This is short-term urgent survival work.
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In as many places as possible, we also take a longer and deeper view to focus on people's means of survival. So we focus on preventing asset depletion by a vet and vaccination programme which covered 1 million cattle in We also work with technical partners to develop better quality seed to increase the prospect of high yields if IDPs get the chance to plant and harvest. In Somalia, we are now in a partnership with the World Bank. We upgrade sub-surface dams, other water catchment cisterns and healthcare to ensure sustainable systems of survival for pastoralists and farmers, and we also distribute cash and food to meet urgent needs.
For many people the ICRC's combined approach stops hunger now and prevents it in the future. We understand a lot of our work as minimal "development holds" — struggling to keep systems and services at basic level to prevent even further development reversals. What about the peace part of the nexus? The ICRC is not focused on peace-building or peace-making, but the way the ICRC works can create cross-line opportunities and political habits that can serve as resources for peace. Working with all parties to conflict as we do, we often find ourselves building practices of humanitarian dialogue and reciprocity that build cross-conflict contact, trust and confidence between warring parties.
These political intangibles are important to peace. The ICRC's dialogues may be about humanitarian access or exchanges of prisoners and the dead. They may involve the search for missing people on different sides of a conflict, or arrange the repair of essential water pipes that cross frontlines. This humanitarian practice develops a culture of dialogue, reciprocal action and mutual benefit which is a potential resource for peace. Humanitarian dialogues shape a series of confidence-building measures and vital habits of talking which can be leveraged later in political peace processes.
The services and systems we help to sustain and improve over years — systems of protection, water, health, food security, detention and family links — may also be valuable resources for peace. Maintaining infrastructure and social systems with national and opposition authorities prioritizes a respect for law, rights and responsibility. It builds political contract, preserves or improves governance capacity, fosters cooperation between people and power, and delivers mutual gain across communities. Sustaining this governance habit may also make peace easier to make when the time is right.
But, as you all know, the nexus is not as tidy as this in practice. It is easily disrupted by violence, climate, financing patterns and hard differences between States. These create barriers that break the links across the nexus easily and fast. There are also three big gaps in current nexus policy. The first is protection. The second is its reach into needs beyond government-held areas. The third is clear recognition of the need for principled humanitarian action to address the first two gaps.
South Sudan and Somalia offer clear examples of hard barriers to the nexus on the ground. Recurrent violence means people may not be able to exploit a nexus strategy with the seed and tools given to them with a sustainable food security intention. New violence means they often do not get to sow or harvest, but end up eating seed. This is the feasibility problem in nexus operations in armed conflict.
In Somalia this year, drought has recently pushed more rural people into urban displacement, showing how climate risk can also undermine the feasibility of a sustainable nexus operation. Finance and government scepticism can be other barriers. Although multiyear financing is increasing, not all governments provide it and not all authorities are able to leverage it well in multi-year strategic planning. In armed conflicts, the capacity of government departments is often deeply degraded. Some powerful States still think humanitarian and development budgets should be kept separate, and that the nexus is a funding grab by humanitarians, or that the nexus obscures the proper place of humanitarian action.
There are gaps as well as barriers in the nexus. The first gap in current nexus thinking is protection. There is an assistance bias in the development policy of Agenda which focuses heavily on development inputs, outputs and quantitative indicators, like increased nutritional status, reduced mortality, increased incomes, closer and cleaner water supply. But, as your staff see every day, people's safety and protection is a pre-condition of development and peace.
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If people are being attacked, looted, impoverished, bereaved, besieged and detained, then they cannot get close to development or peace. They are locked down hard in one corner of the nexus triangle. Nexus policy must not develop naively without taking into account the huge challenge of protection on the ground. The second gap is in areas in armed conflicts where needs are high beyond the reach of the State. The infrastructure of development and the politics of peace, inevitably pull organizations and resources towards State power.
But, in armed conflict, people's needs are often very high in contested or opposition areas. We will cover historical cases as well as contemporary ones. Students will critically evaluate the main analytical approaches towards controversies and we will also explore new web-based tools for researching controversies. The social impact of technologies is typically thought about fairly late, if ever, in the design process. Indeed, it can be difficult at design time to predict what effects technologies will have.
Nevertheless, design decisions can inadvertently "lock in" particular values early on.
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What social and cultural values do technology designs consciously or unconsciously promote? To what degree can social impact be "built into" a technology? How can we take social and cultural values into account in design? This course will explore the cultural history of analog synthesizers and their progeny of digital devices samplers, sequencers, drum machines and desktop technologies that revolutionized popular music soundscapes and embodiment. Synthesis will be considered as both a musical technology and theoretical concept that together spark imagined cyborg identities and post-human futures, challenging and resynthesizing categories of gender, sexuality, and race.
Student will also have the opportunity to engage with Cornell's Robert Moog Archive and develop research, creative, or curation projects that may be featured in the spring exhibition and programming to celebrate this collection. This course is open to graduate students and fourth-year undergraduates by permission.
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- Technology and the Ethics of Responsibility.
Undergraduates should contact the instructor before enrolling. Language, Knowledge and the Environment. How do we perceive and know the world around us? Which are the multiple ways in which we negotiate this knowledge into language and embodied practice? Does one's position in society matter? Is the thing reducible to its representation? This senior seminar proposes to confront the production of knowledge on nature through the lenses of our and others' ways of wording it. Towards the end of the semester, we will focus on the concept of adaptation: how do we cope with an increasingly difficult environment?
This seminar explores Latin American political violence since the s, focusing on the role technology played in internal conflicts called "Dirty Wars," in which the state employed extrajudicial violence to halt leftist or communist "subversion. Reports from large-scale investigations called truth commissions, first-person testimonies, fiction, and films underscore the employment of technology in these conflicts—electrical torture, the destruction of electrical towers, foreign-made weapons and vehicles, and seizures of media stations and newspapers.
This course is divided into three major thematic sections. The first looks at the history of racial thinking in the West. We begin with the existence or not of conceptions of biological race in the early- modern period, focusing on early voyages of discovery and so-called "first encounters" between the peoples of the Old and New Worlds. In the second part of the course we will look at early enunciations of racial thought in the late 18th century and at the problems of classification that these raised, before examining the roots of "Scientific Racism. The last third of the course looks at science and technology in colonial contexts, including "colonial technologies" guns, steam- ships, and telegraphs as well as medicine and public hygiene.
STS : What is an Epidemic? The term "epidemic" travels widely and wildly in contemporary worlds. But, what, when and where is "the epidemic"? How and why does epidemic unfold? This senior seminar offers an interdisciplinary exploration of infectious diseases. Our investigations take us from medieval Europe's "Black Plague," to Tuberculosis in early twentieth century United States and its global resurgence at the turn of the twenty-first, to Ebola and its ongoing, periodic outbreaks today.
We consider the consequences epidemics have for how we live and imagine shared ecological futures. The environmental humanities pose a radically different set of questions to texts, materials, and contexts that were previously approached in terms of human intentions and actions alone. This seminar explores the theoretical and methodological potentials of this rapidly emerging and constantly evolving field from the interdisciplinary, comparative perspective that it also axiomatically demands. The seminar will develop ways to configure these focal points to the theoretical and practical concerns of various disciplinary approaches and, especially, to participants' individual interests and research projects.
Students must register for 4 credits each semester for a total of 8 credits. After the first semester, students receive a letter grade of "R"; a letter grade for both semesters is submitted at the end of the second semester whether or not the student completes a thesis or is recommended for honors. Minimally, an honors thesis outline and bibliography should be completed during the first semester. In consultation with the advisors, the director of undergraduate studies will evaluate whether the student should continue working on an honors project. Students should note that these courses are to be taken in addition to those courses that meet the regular major requirements.
If students do not complete the second semester of the honors project, they must change the first semester to independent study to clear the "R" and receive a grade. Otherwise, the "R" will remain on their record and prevent them from graduating.
Ethical Challenges in Global Public Health
This course examines the relationship between scientific development, technological innovation and maintenance, and the capitalistic forces that support and benefit from these activities. STS : Environmental History. This graduate seminar offers an introduction to environmental history—the study of human interactions with nonhuman nature in the past. It is a subfield within the historical discipline that has complex roots, an interdisciplinary orientation, and synergies with fields across the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.
This seminar explores environmental history on three levels: historically, historiographically, and theoretically. What are some of the key historical processes that have shaped humans' historical relationships with the environment at various scales? How have environmental historians re conceptualized the field as it has developed over the past half-century? What analytic concepts have environmental historians used to understand human-natural relations? STS : Inside Technology. Rather than analyze the social impact of technology upon society, this course investigates how society gets inside technology.
In other words, is it possible that the very design of technologies embody assumptions about the nature of society? And, if so, are alternative technologies, which embody different assumptions about society, possible? Do engineers have implicit theories about society? Is technology gendered? How can we understand the interaction of society and technology?
Throughout the course the arguments are illustrated by detailed examinations of particular technologies, such as the ballistic missile, the bicycle, the electric car, and the refrigerator. Applications and information are available in Morrill Hall. Global Health and International Relations. Colin McInnes. Global Health and Global Health Ethics.
Solomon Benatar. Eco Crime and Genetically Modified Food. Reece Walters. Animals as Biotechnology. Richard Twine. Asian Biotech. Aihwa Ong. Laura Westra. Global Health Watch 5. Third World Network. Why Demography Matters. Danny Dorling. Is the Planet Full? Ian Goldin. Comparative Health Policy. Robert H. The Rise of the U.
Environmental Health Movement. Kate Davies. Trading the Genome. Bronwyn Parry. European Union Health Law. Tamara K. Michael Howlett. Tissue Economies. Catherine Waldby. Reproductive Rights and Wrongs. Betsy Hartmann. The Lancet: Family Planning. The Lancet. Good Science. Charis Thompson. Genomics and Society. George Gaskell. Health Ecology. Thomas Boleyn.
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Taking Action, Saving Lives. Kristin Shrader-Frechette.
The Nexus of Law and Biology: New Ethical Challenges - Google книги
Designer Animals. Conrad Brunk. Graham Dutfield. The Ecology of Health.