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Smart Energy Solutions Pvt Ltd. The company is having a group of professionals of various disciplines who are responsible to the management in carrying out their day to day business responsibilities. Mail: smartenergysolutions gmail. The solar PV markets in these countries are driven by strong PV project pipelines, flexible and innovative financing mechanisms, and proactive government policies. Figure 3. Table 3. Green electricity scheme: Allows customers to purchase green electricity based on renewable energy from the electricity utility, usually at a premium price.

PV-specific green electricity scheme: Allows customers to purchase green electricity based on PV electricity from the electricity utility, usually at a premium price. Renewable Portfolio Standard RPS : A mandated requirement that the electricity utility source a portion of their electricity supplies from renewable energy. Tax credits: Allows some or all expenses associated with PV installation to be deducted from taxable income streams.

Tax benefits: In India accelerated depreciation on investment in RE devices excluding wind power plants is allowed. Net metering: The system owner consumes solar electricity and receives retail value for any excess electricity fed into the grid, as recorded by a bi-directional electricity meter and obtained over the billing period. Net billing: The electricity taken from the grid and the electricity fed into the grid are tracked separately.

The electricity fed into the grid is valued at a different price. The Electricity generated shall be fed to the batteries for charging and to be utilized directly during day time itself due to irregular grid power supply in the area and therefore off grid system is proposed, making it economical and viable.

All AC cabling upto the load shall not be in our scope. The information that is gathered through literature reviews, case studies, field trips, and key informant interviews will be used to make recommendations about implementing photovoltaic solar system at Sitaram Bhartiya Intercollege, Gangagarh as part of the campus sustainability initiative.

The exploratory nature of this study indicates that the theories are based upon information gathered through various research sources. The exploratory phase helps to understand the points of view of actors in the setting, identify worthy research questions, articulate and operationalize variables of interest, and allow theory to emerge.

Several research techniques have been employed to ensure that sufficient information has been gathered to evaluate the feasibility of photovoltaic solar system at Sitaram Bhartiya Intercollege, Gangagarh in terms of technological, economic, environmental, and social factors. Sources included various books, journals, internet sites, government publications, building plans of the school and experiences gained from implementation of similar previous projects.

The literature review was also valuable in explaining and illustrating key concepts, especially some of the more technical aspects of the project. The scope of literature review is limited to the technological and economic aspects of implementing solar projects 5. A tour of the Brad Power Solar at Greater Noida was also taken to learn more about the complete range of solar energy systems and custom solutions incorporating advanced building integration, passive solar design, photovoltaic, and solar thermal heating.

Accordingly, different assumptions and strategies were considered for each of these systems. The strategy part also involved visits to nearby facilities and the installed solar projects of the company in order to get a firsthand experience of the technology and their benefits. In this study, the sampling frame has not been taken as the complete data has been considered for sizing the system 5.

The data from the school site was collected and studied, analyzed and the most suitable technologies and standards for installation in the school Campus were used. In order to find out the most suitable and efficient orientation and location for installation of the Solar PV modules, the roof of the relevant buildings were measured and surveyed. Dimensions were measured using standard meter tapes while the length of the shadow cast by structures and trees was assumed to be 1. The electric supply is not regular and generally power shedding is a common phenomenon here.

Data regarding the power cuts is collected by interacting with the school staff to get a clear picture about the average power cuts per day and the reasons for the same. It is emerged that the power cuts is a regular phenomenon especially in summer months and the average power cut is about hours per day in summers during the school hours. No specific reasons for the power cuts could be ascertained by interacting with the school staff. Other important metrological parameters such as latitude, average insolation etc were taken from the internet and MNRE data.

The dimensions and basic layout of the system studied during site visits was used as a reference when preparing the detailed plans of solar placement on building rooftops. All the data collected is based on actual and measured physically on the site such as the data for load calculations and the actual size of the roof available for installation of the solar panel array. Other data is collected from the previous records available with the institution such as records of electricity bills and power consumption in last one year.

Grid over here means the wiring network from the electricity distribution company that provides electricity. An off-grid solution generates electricity and stores it in a system of batteries and does not provide it back to the grid. The charge controller prevents overcharging of batteries and also makes sure that the batteries do not get discharged at night or cloudy days. MPPT being the most sophisticated and efficient although more expensive have been considered for the project implementation.

The battery bank is the component that needs regular maintenance. Solar systems need deep cycle batteries and cannot be operated on batteries used in automobiles. Life of batteries depends on number of times it is discharged and thus deep cycle batteries are a must. There are multiple types of batteries available in market.

The maintenance free ones are the most expensive and they also last no longer than 4- 5 years. The other regular lead batteries need to be filled with distilled water regularly for right operation but if maintained well can run for long and are cheaper than maintenance free batteries. The maintenance free batteries have been considered for the project due to no maintenance requirement and long life.

For using with Solar Panels, it can be the same inverter if you have one. In other words the PCU is the heart of the system and ensures the life of the battery and optimum usage of the system. It will also take care of the initial surge current required for inductive loads.

The capacity of the Inverter will always be double the size of the load demand. It also requires less maintenance, as there are no batteries involved in it. So essentially a grid connected system is without a charge controller and a battery bank. Figure 5. The majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. Crystalline silicon is a commonly used semiconductor. Photovoltaic energy conversion in solar cells consists of two essential steps. First absorption of sunlight generates an electron-hole pair.

The electron and hole are then separated by the structure of the device-electrons to the negative terminal and holes to the positive terminal-thus generating electrical power. This is known as a photovoltaic array. This is especially important for wafer-based silicon cells which are brittle. It is highly efficient Solar panels for solar power generation which comes at best price with IEC certification 25 years performance warranty and 1 year manufacturer warranty.

The total power output available for distribution amongst various loads was considered after placing the modules on the roof plans. That is because in case your usage is more than what the system installed can generate, then extra electricity required can come from the grid. This is covered under net metering policy of the Discom. But sizing is very important for an off-grid system.

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Details Collect From pf Order a copy Copyright or permission restrictions may apply. Again good source. Public awareness of this fact is high. This is the a visual intrusion; solution adopted at Goodnae Hills, Washington b noise; State. It depends on e hazard to birds. An individual wind turbine, required. Should agriculture be banned within an or even a small group, can be regarded by many not area of possible blade throw up to m then as an objectionable intrusion but as an object of effectively the whole wind farm will be denied to interest, a functioning structure no more at odds with agriculture.

More reasonably, farming would be the surroundings than, say, a motorway bridge. Large restricted only in the relatively small area just below groups may create a different reaction and great care the blades, but many do not see this as a necessity must be taken with their siting and layout. It is unlikely and believe farming could go right up to the tower, that layouts as in the Altamont Pass in California particularly stock farming. Taking roads and areas would be accepted in many parts of the UK.

In the Netherlands this matter has also received careful study13 and again no significant effects Noise is of two kinds: mechanical noise from the are recorded. In California certain rare species, e. The result has been a stationary windmill blades to assist their aerial bonanza for wind turbine manufacturers who had their predation. Thus an American wind turbine 5. These conditions have also been to the benefit of certain European manufacturers, particularly Institutional and other barriers vary greatly between Danish but also two British companies which countries and indeed within states of countries.

They established wind farms there in the last two years of mainly occur under three headings: the tax concessions. Whilst this section considers primarily wind turbine — Taxation development in the UK, it is instructive to pick one of — Payment for power generated our European neighbours and briefly consider their — Planning development there. A those used only for agricultural purposes. A further relatively few planning applications. In some research activities in research institutes and universities cases the operators of wind turbines may be able to and to support the continued operation of the ECN benefit under the Electricity Act, from the Non- Test Station.

The aim of this ambitious programme is Fossil Fuel Obligation and the associated fossil fuel to develop the Dutch industry, thus enhancing its levy, but possibly only until There-after sales ability to compete in the large wind turbine market will have to be to the pool at the going rates for all both in the Netherlands and abroad. This may create considerable difficulties in financing projects on the open market with the 5.

The Watt Committee has not itself carried out a market 5. The market for tax concessions on the supply and installation of wind wind farms, other than the California situation, will turbines. It may also be said that planning considerations, particularly oil. WEG have installed two kW wind farms are likely to develop in many parts of the machines, one for National Power in Carmarthen Bay world. More government should continue to encourage the recently they have supplied a machine to the CEGB at development of a UK industry for export having regard Carmarthen Bay, a kW wind turbine in Shetland to the time needed for the development of wind farm and a 1 MW machine at Richborough in Kent.

Howdens export opportunities. Some difficulties with to enter the growing European market. They have a proven economics. Government support for this 25 m diameter test bed machine operating at development will be necessary for some time due to Carmarthen Bay and a 17 m, built in conjunction with the long lead time and high financial risk involved.

They have also provided the design for a 14 m diameter version built in Sardinia. Currently 5. This will There are several firms which have successfully have a maximum output of kW and will be owned developed small wind turbines and established export and operated by National Power. Until the recent Science and Engineering Research Council have been establishment of the Department of Trade and Industry commissioning research work of a generic character, test centre near Glasgow, operated by NEL, little including work on materials, fatigue, blade profiles, government help was received by these companies resource availability and offshore application of wind which have developed in response to an existing power.

The total government-funded wind power demand. In the process they have propulsion have taken place during the past few carried out much research and development work, years and the BWEA has been active in promoting particularly into the turbines of 20 m and 60 m further work in this area, 14 to encourage UK diameter in Orkney Fig.

Despite commercial machine in North Devon. In addition they a rapid drop in oil prices in —86 there has now have exported twenty 25 m wind turbines to California been the predicted inexorable rise. Expected fuel and operate these through an associated company Fig. WASP devices, and this now begins to represent an attractive cost reduction for fleet operators. One UK device, the Walker Wingsail, has already shown its worth on a British ship in —87 and further developments of this and other cost-effective devices should be supported in a wind power research and development programme.

There is also a small amount of hydro- power on the system. By far the largest proportion is coal-fired and on present plans for new power station building is likely to remain so in the next few decades. The introduction of wind generation, or any other renewable, into the system must increase the security of the system by adding to the diversity of generating plant. Offshore wind energy assessment phase 2B study. UK Ltd.

Wind assisted ship propulsion strategy document. British — Wind Energy Association, November National Research Council of Canada, Oct. European Wind Energy Conf. Published 3. Wind power for the UK. British Wind Energy Association, by H. Stephens, Bedford. January An assessment study. Reidel Publ. Published by MEP Ltd, Such resource. Published by BHRA, Reidel generation including coal and nuclear power which Publ.

Passive Solar Energy in Buildings: Watt Committee: report number 17 (Watt Committee Report No 17)

Just how B public enquiry, Oct. Background papers relevant to the appraisal of UK assumptions, such as future prices of fossil and Energy Research and Development and Demonstration, nuclear fuels. A study into the use of vertical axis wind turbines in offshore attractive now to justify a major programme of locations. Sensitivity of cost of electricity to various parameters. Source: Ref. Table A5. Section 6 Small Scale Hydro-electric Energy 6. It is in the mini and micro scale Conventional hydro power uses the potential or kinetic installations that technological progress is most evident energy of rainfall collected in a high level catchment because of the very tight constraint on economics as it runs towards one at a lower level, often the sea.

As a power producer the technology has a long history of development, and it was hydro power which drove 6. It has been used for the direct generation of Heads of as little as a few feet can be exploited electricity since and most modern schemes are successfully, but require large volume flows to provide installed for this purpose. The technology has a useful quantity of energy.

Consequently the technology is largely mature. Similarly plant components, are readily with high rainfall and steep mountainous terrain are available from a wide range of manufacturing sources. Low head river novel designs or methods are apparent, and these are resources are more widely scattered, but of relatively concentrated at the mini and micro scale end of the small energy significance. On the prime mover side there were among the first energy sources to be developed, are novel low head designs based on reciprocating and have largely been fully exploited. Consequently attention is now focused on smaller resources which Table 6.

On the generation, protection and impact. As public sensitivity to environmental control side, the use of micro and power electronics is impact grows, the amount of economic, tending to simplify and cheapen the scheme. With environmentally acceptable resource falls. Nevertheless use of components in novel hydroelectric development in the UK, including those materials such as plastics for pipelines is apparent.

None of these developments is revolutionary, in the The Watt Committee on Energy working group on sense that it creates extensive new opportunities, but small scale hydropower reported on resource potential it does gradually push out the boundaries of economic in March Report No. The estimates are shown in Table 6. There have been no technically impossible to exploit. Clearly, b tends significant technical advances opening up new areas towards a as technical developments take place. The run-of-river schemes proposed develop. As conditions change e. With this in mind it would not be surprising if the total d Environmentally acceptable potential—which is all viable hydro-electric potential of the UK turned out Table 6.

From the same survey, total exploitable is shown in Fig. With a zero fuel cost, and typically low maintenance and operation costs, the primary economic 6. Generally speaking, unless The economics of hydro power are absolutely the method of economic assessment used recognises sitespecific, and depend critically upon the topography, the extremely long remunerative life of hydro works, geology and hydrology of each individual site. These the economic case will not look favourable. It is determine the size of the resource and the cost of paradoxical that investment in hydro schemes looks development, which are themselves variable depending extremely favourable in retrospect i.

The high cost of capital, the Fig. Hydro capital cost distribution. Cumulative economic capacity. As a consequence the impact resource, and the presence of some institutional of environmental opposition on scheme development barriers and environmental opposition combine to is considered to be relatively high, reducing the viable produce a stagnant domestic market. It seems unlikely i. Institutional barriers to development were considered In the construction phase the excavation and in some detail in Watt Committee Report No.

Once constructed a number of scheme prevention, land drainage, impoundment and fisheries. It is now and high-voltage connections. In addition, in the administered by the National Rivers Authority. Of the more significant environmental impacts, the In England and Wales the licensing of, and the charges most likely to generate serious opposition are: for, the abstraction of water are certainly the most complex part of the water problems for small-scale a Interference with fish population, particularly water-power users. Under Section 23 1 of the Water salmon and trout, due to blockage of access to Resources Act no-one may abstract water from migratory fish, the diversion of water from a source of supply except in pursuance of a licence.

Section 31 of the Water Act Section 16 of the c The permanent occupation of land by scheme Energy Conservation Act revises Section 60 2 components, particularly the upper reservoir if a of the Water Resources Act of and refers to the large area has to be flooded. All Water Authorities were e The visual intrusion of the scheme onto a prepared to give consideration to this by allowing landscape which is likely to be of high visual reduced charges in appropriate circumstances, but the quality, perhaps supporting a large body of tourist discretionary nature of these powers has led to wide or recreational interest.

Recent court rulings The largest proportion of UK viable undeveloped may help to clarify the position somewhat for small hydro potential occurs in Scotland and Wales, in users in England and Wales. The latter requires that each installation ideally should have individual design attention, which conflicts with the Most small-scale schemes for the discharge of water need to keep things simple and hence cheap if mini from a turbine would not be such as to be considered a and micro schemes are to be economically viable.

It would be necessary 6. In the UK context the remaining potential developable 6. Nevertheless it has a number of favourable strategic characteristics. These are: Most hydro-electric schemes that are installed entail the construction of either an under or over water course. If, along with suitable manufacturers of plant and on a non-main river, the proposed construction causes equipment.

In the event that the impoundment entails 2. Electricity in Scotland: Report of the Committee on storage of more than 25 m3 of water above local Generation and Distribution in Scotland. University of Salford, impounding structure would need to be carried out Department of Civil Engineering, Oct.

University of Salford, Department of 6. HMSO, London, The Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act requires 6. Report of the Water Resources Committee. HMSO, safety and passage offish. Sections 12 to 15 of the Act London, Hydro-electric works in North Wales. Further developments. Internal Report No. The only other barriers to development in the UK Section 7 Geothermal Energy 7. Variations in the vertical thermal gradient at the surface of the crust. Sub-surface temperatures are within some two to three decades. It is generally related to the gradient, itself a function of the heat accepted that thermal energy is derived primarily from flow and the conductivity of the rocks, and locally to the decay of long-lived radioactive minerals with a the heat production derived from concentrations of smaller, but significant, contribution from a slight radioactive isotopes.

The principal technical the thermal history of the earth, physicists such as Lord problem is the development of practical and economic Kelvin had calculated that the time required for the mechanisms to concentrate and harness the massive earth to cool from an original molten state to its present but diffuse thermal energy which the heat flow condition was only some 80 million years.

It was represents. The wide variation in the temperature of subsequently realised that the internal heat source accessible geothermal fluids leads to a range of possible provided by the decay of the long-lived radioactive applications which are summarised in Table 7. The electrical generating capacity of countries with geothermal power plants operating in is indicated in MW electrical. Power generation began in forms of energy: thermal due to high temperatures, in Lardarello in Italy, where installed capacity at the mechanical due to high pressures, and chemical due end of amounted to MW.

Since there to a high methane content in the fluids. Such aquifers have been power generation developments in the USA, occur in deep sedimentary basins in which pressures Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, New Zealand, and temperatures are well in excess of those expected Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, China, the USSR, at the depth at which the reservoir lies.

Turkey, Greece, Kenya and Iceland, as well as in several The third method of exploitation is still under smaller oceanic islands. HDR system. These are passed that design. In this, water is injected via one borehole through heat exchangers and their energy extracted drilled into a body of hot dry rock to a depth for space or process heating before the cooled waters sufficient to provide power generation temperatures. The injected water acts as a heat not return to cool the source within the lifetime of the transfer medium and is circulated through a volume scheme.

As the circulating water is heated, its Hungary, Canada, USA, China and the USSR, density falls and the density differential supplements aquifers are actively developed and an estimated 7 the pumping effort needed to cause it to rise up a GW of energy was produced worldwide in A second, production borehole. Table 7. Several doublets could be temperatures c.

Although the results development, HDR schemes are considered to have to date are encouraging, some aspects of reservoir the best prospects of success in relatively uniform control require further development before the system crystalline rocks such as granite, in which reservoir could be regarded as proven technically. Substantial generation can be undertaken without the problems development funding is still required to create a associated with non-uniform material.

Particularly prototype production plant able to demonstrate advantageous are radiothermal granites in which economic viability. The announcement7 of continued radioactive minerals are concentrated and so add government funding for a further three-year programme additional decay heat to the local heat flow. In turn such prediction welcome. Subject to a satisfactory outcome to that necessitates knowledge of the geological structure and review, the development of a prototype demonstration the regional heat flow.

These have been UK employed to predict both temperatures at given depths In the mids the Department of Energy in and depths to given temperatures and hence to produce association with the EEC initiated a programme of resource estimates. Estimation given in Fig.

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These data must then be related to of geothermal resources involves calculation of the the occurrence of the relevant rock types and in Fig. This requires knowledge of granites and the principal Mesozoic sedimentary basins the mass of the rocks, their specific heat and their mean in the UK.

Of the former, those in the Cornubian temperature. It can thus sediments in the latter contain the main aquifers be seen that the principal cause of variation in such capable of development for low enthalpy resources. In his estimation of reserve size, Shock 12 introduced a design base-case for the exploitation of HDR and some rather arbitrary limitations on the accessible areas in which development might take place. Subsequently to the Shock report, BGS suggested as a result of further research that the HDR prospects for the Weardale granite should be upgraded;10 part of this granite is close to the western edge of the Gateshead urban area.

The costs of constructing a doublet in either depth range are likely Fig. Distribution of radiothermal granites and major Mesozoic basins on land in the UK Ref. The ARB is qualified in various ways The areas in which the hot brines found in aquifers in determining the proportion which might be might be developed as local energy supplements can practicably available for exploitation. The low development the potential geothermal resources in the enthalpy Geothermal Resource that part of the offshore regions of the UK have not been determined.

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Accessible Resource Base that could possibly be extracted economically at some specified time in the rocks of principal interest at temperatures of more than 7. Estimates assume development with doublets. A scale is given to the figures by bearing in mind that the annual use of electrical energy in the UK is about J. A significant to greater depths, generation cycles using lower constraint on the development of aquifers for space- temperatures and the HDR system are considered. The variety of configurations of turbine and generating cycles which are possible for power and CHP 7.

The latter are related to borehole depths and diameters which, in turn, are 1 Liquid dominated hydrothermal. In active determined by the required temperature of the fluids hydrothermal volcanic zones. The estimated 2 Vapour dominated hydrothermal. In active temperatures at relevant depths in the UK Fig. In broad, deep sedimentary binary cycles would result in economic operation. Theoretically at any site above and it is clear that to recover the maximum where drilling permits access to rocks at power heat the injected water must follow optimum flow generation temperatures, depending upon the paths through the reservoir rocks.

These must be of generation cycle employed. The performance of production wells. Cost comparisons for a single doublet system volume of the rock separating the injection and using three power generation cycles are shown in production wells and extending well beyond their Table 7. Increasing the number of immediate vicinity. Batchelor, personal communication. If a multiple fracture is of the order of a few tens to hundreds of doublet system with centralised generation is microns. Such costs compare not unfavourably with time.

Passive Solar Energy in Buildings (Watt Committee Report No 17)

Further research to a great number of uncertainties, reflecting the worldwide improve present knowledge and understanding of the lack of HDR exploitation. Sensitivity studies were made rock mechanics of reservoir generation is necessary by Shock12 to explore the effects of changes of several to obtain the best performance from HDR parameters on the discounted prices of electricity developments. The reservoir creation should be Fig.

Pairs of holes may not necessarily hydrocarbon industry and world events. The example optimise the performance and multiple production given above, in which Batchelor16 employed current wells may prove economic. Lowering the return drilling costs rather than those assumed by Shock, temperature of the injection water will increase the illustrates the major effect that this factor alone has on buoyancy in the production limb and so reduce the the overall costs. Continuing research on HDR reservoir pumping power required, but to achieve this, good development and management technologies may also heat-exchange with the fluid used in the turbine lead to cost reductions.

Shock12 explored the economic potential of HDR 7. He concluded that for electricity alone, use of the Trilateral Wet Vapour Cycle 7. Variation in discounted cost of electricity for independent changes in parameters: isolated doublet TWVC case Ref. In some circumstances, Mortimer.

Again, the economics of examined by Shock. For these reasons, costs capacity. To illustrate the point, rounded costs site-specific studies.

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In the present state of knowledge of geothermal district heating schemes range from 35 of HDR systems, however, it would be unwise to to pence per therm at prices R. Harrison, assume that an HDR reservoir could be generated in personal communication. The Southampton scheme rocks other than relatively uniform crystalline began operation in January and is based on materials such as granite, and such material is not year agreements with several consumers within a large known to underlie the CHP Lead Cities or the nine commercial development. Each agreement others selected by Shock.

Thomson, personal 7. They scale commercial, horticultural application 2. Although the Carnmenellis granite. Ltd is insufficiently advanced to state unequivocally that a part of the Utilicom Group to exploit for space- commercially viable systems can be developed. The R. Taylor, personal communication. In the UK, exploration boreholes have been drilled to Benefit cost ratios for installation of HDR capacity confirm the presence of geothermal aquifers with funds for electricity generation, CHP and heat supply were provided by the Department of Energy and the EEC analysed by Shock12 for three scenarios and the results at Larne in Northern Ireland, Marchwood and Western for are shown in Table 7.

Explanade, Southampton, and most recently at Specific sites, such as the Isles of Scilly which are Cleethorpes in Humberside. However, as HDR technology at the present time. However, in the previously noted, Southampton City Council in Scillies water supplies for the circulating loop make- association with a commercial company is exploiting up and cooling purposes could produce difficulties the geothermal well at the Western Esplanade in the unless sea water can be used.

Research on this centre of the city. The transmissivity of the Sherwood possibility has been started as coastal sites would sandstones in the well at Cleethorpes is estimated to become attractive if this proves possible. As indicated operating in the Paris and Aquitaine basins. This paper was presented in and in exploration wells which yielded no hydrocarbons. Similarly in the Pannonian basin in Hungary, some particularly in urban areas. However, recent of the low enthalpy geothermal wells now in use improvements in noise insulation of rigs and the use were originally drilled during explorations for of electric motors rather than diesel has largely hydrocarbons.

The commercial exploitation of disused eliminated that problem. During drilling operations oil wells might suggest prospects for future geothermal an extensive area, ideally of several hectares, is required district heating schemes in the UK when onshore oil for the plant and continuing road access is needed reservoirs have been exhausted.

However, the throughout the period of drilling for many heavy goods geographical mismatch of oil fields and existing heat vehicles. Subsequently the area occupied permanently loads may militate against this. Conventional geothermal power stations in the generate high stresses leading to the occurrence of small volcanic zones are similar in bulk to many others and, seismic events. For this reason seismic monitoring particularly in early developments, surface pipelines equipment is installed in all regions in which HDR bringing steam from the widely distributed boreholes developments are under consideration well in advance to central power generation facilities can be unsightly.

Within the volcanic zones The provision of water for both make-up of the gaseous discharges from associated power stations can circulation fluids and cooling purposes for HDR cause significant environmental disturbance requiring schemes may create supply problems. At sites adjoining corrective measures.

Away generation by HDR schemes are likely to be much less from such areas, however, cooling towers would be severe so far as gaseous emissions are concerned as required and, for example, Shock12 estimated that if the concentrations are much lower. For example, the MW of generating capacity were to be installed fluids circulating through granites will bring radon to some 25 natural draught towers would be necessary.

At present subsurface circulation for heat additional scaling, corrosion and possibly gaseous transfer has only been undertaken with fresh water, emission problems could occur. The high density brines although consideration has been given to the use of found in UK geothermal aquifers can be more difficult sea water for this purpose.

Over the lifetime of a to deal with. The salt concentration is such that, except scheme, large volumes of water would be injected into at estuarine and coastal sites where discharge to the the thermal reservoir. The current evidence indicates sea can be arranged, untreated disposal to local rivers that the water loss from the circulation fluids will be or public sewers would not be permissible. This mobile the risk of subsidence, already slight, is eliminated. This would be used to resources of energy, particularly for electricity acquire the operational experience at present generation in the UK.

Aquifers are not able to provide lacking. Such a demonstration is greatly to be the high entropy energy required for this purpose but recommended and is likely to attract both interest has been stimulated in the expectation of high commercial investment from British companies and temperature heat from Hot Dry Rocks at depths of 6 international support over and above that already km or more in some areas of the UK.

Irrespective of provided by the EEC. Internationally the legal position varies considerably, but in some countries legislation has been introduced to control The authors would like to thank the following for development. An associated legal issue arises in permission to reproduce the following figures and connection with the ownership of minerals which may tables: The Geological Society for Figs. The prospects for a successful conclusion 1.

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BOTT, M. Associated economic Arnold, London, Science, —8. Publication No. Final time and some areas warrant site-specific studies, Report. Kernforschungsanlage, Julich, FRG, Hot dry rock technology faces up to major challenge. Review: Quarterly Journal of Renewable Energy. The application of low Energy, London. Issue 3 10— GALE, I. In Geothermal Energy—the many parts of the world and is expected to continue Potential in the United Kingdom, ed. In the UK, however, the geographical of the United Kingdom. London, distribution of the aquifers and the difficulty of — Hot dry rock potential of the United Kingdom.

Nottingham: Br. Su- rv. Penrhyn may lead to a change in this situation. UK, Inst.

Background papers relevant to the appraisal of Southampton Western Esplanade Geothermal Well—a Engrs, Potent. HMSO, developments.